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  • The
    Science of Myotonology®





    Myotonology® is a facial rejuvenation system that
    relies on a patented treatment method and specific proprietary frequencies,
    wavelengths and serums, coupled with microcurrent electricity, to stimulate and
    tone the muscles of the face and neck in order to reduce the signs of aging.
    This treatment also improves the overall health color and texture of the skin,
    resulting in a more youthful, “lifted” look.



    Myotonology® uses a very small amount of electricity
    measured in microamps, or 1,000,000th of an amp,
    abbreviated µA. It is sub-sensory in most cases, and mimics the body’s own
    electrical current. The microcurrent amperage range utilized by Myotonology® is
    from 1µA to

    1,000µA – a range that is generally
    considered a cosmetic current level. Therefore, the

    MyoTone and MyoMed professional units are considered
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Class II devices. Unlike higher risk Class
    III devices, they do not need extensive FDA clinical trials for pre-market
    approval (PMA), but rather rigorous FDA electrical safety testing and a

    510(k) pre-market notification. The predicate device
    for any microcurrent device is the Transcutaneal Electronic Nerve Stimulator
    unit (TENS) used for pain management. TENS devices supply current above 1,000
    µA, or 1 milliamp, and can cause the visible contraction of muscles. This is
    considered a medical-current level.



    Myotone devices deliver a cosmetic
    current below 1,000uA, so they are considered

     Microcurrent Electronic
    Neuromuscular Stimulators (MENS) devices. A current above 1,000 µA has also
    been proven clinically to be counter-productive to facial toning, because it
    fatigues the muscles by tetanizing them, thus depleting them of energy instead of
    energizing and toning them. The result is increased sagging of skin. Another
    important factor to consider with facial toning treatments is the frequency of
    the current being applied, known as Hertz (Hz). Hz is the unit of measure of
    the frequency of electrical impulses or the number of impulses per second, i.e.
    1 Hz = 1 impulse per second. The effective frequency range for facial toning is
    1-100 Hz. Within this range, there is an excitation of the motor nerves which
    leads to muscular re- education with proper technique. The placement of probes
    and movement determines whether the muscle will be relaxed (lengthened) or
    tightened (shortened).



    A muscle operates on an all-or-nothing
    principle. It will not contract until electrical stimulation reaches a threshold
    potential, and then it will depolarize and contract. This concept was first
    established in 1871 by Henry Pickering Bowditch, who showed that it is not
    possible to “sneak” up on a muscle with an obscure shaped wavelength and make
    it contract more quickly, or more often. Therefore, any device that is touted
    as using multiple wavelengths that “cycle” is marketing hype -- muscles are
    either on or off.  Furthermore,
    stimulating muscle nerves with too much current causes them visibly contract
    and tetanize, which is counterproductive, and not the goal of Myotonology®.


    The Myotone unit has a maximum current output of 580uA of
    monophasic, 10Hz positive current. The Myotone pulses very quickly,
    (100ms/cycle) so the gentle current both stimulates and tones the muscles while
    helping penetrate hydrating serums via iontophoresis. This makes the device
    extremely versatile as it address multiple problem areas.

    Galvanic positive or negative DC current allows the
    user to infuse the epidermis with special ionized serums by a method called
    “iontophoresis.” This well-documented procedure allows for hydration of the
    skin, as well as increased circulation, lymphatic drainage, and stimulation of
    collagen and elastin production. i ii



    does Myotonology ® work?


    Myotonology® systematically reduces the signs of
    aging by maintaining or increasing muscle tone in three ways: muscle
    re-education via a cerebral effect, circulation, and increased cellular
    function. During a session, the user isolates approximately 30 muscles of the
    face and stimulates the muscle fibers with microcurrent impulses to restore
    proper tone to the facial muscles. The skin of the face and neck are the only
    area of the body where skin is directly attached to muscles. As the muscles
    lengthen or contract with age, signs of aging will appear here first. With
    microcurrent impulses, the muscles can be either relaxed or tightened depending
    on the desired outcome. As the muscles are re- educated and move to the proper
    location, the skin moves with them, diminishing fine lines and wrinkles.


    The cerebral effect occurs in part because
    microcurrent mimics the body’s own electrical impulses. As people age, the
    brain’s ability to “sense” a muscle’s condition is dulled, while its ability to
    initiate neural impulses is slowed and diminished because of changes in the
    peripheral nervous system.iii The brain uses specialized
    proprioceptors called the Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) to gather information about
    the facial muscles and help decide whether or not to initiate neural impulses
    to contract muscles, relax muscles, or just maintain tonus in them.



    In the 1970s, George Goodheart Jr., D.C., proved that
    muscles can be re-educated via the GTO and returned to a more natural state. iv Thomas
    Wing and George Goodheart combined the GTO and microcurrent therapy to achieve
    a method for stimulating muscles to re-educate them. Microcurrent effectively
    “reminds” the brain to initiate more impulses. By the specific placement of the
    probes and subsequent gentle movement of the muscles to the correct place, the

    “senses” the new
    desired location. As the brain sends and receives more signals, the  effect of microcurrent therapy is
    re-educated, freshly toned muscle memory.



    By stimulating the facial muscles,
    microcurrent rebuilds the facial structure from the inside, truly giving the
    face a non-invasive “lift.”v Although results can be noticeable
    after several treatments, we recommend a tapered 6-8 week treatment plan to
    allow for the optimal cumulative cerebral and positive skin effects to take
    place.   As the brain “remembers” to send
    more signals, the effect of Myotonology® is tone muscle memory which is long
    lasting, while the increased collagen and elastin growth takes time to achieve
    desired results.


    Myotonology ’s ® patented procedural method
    takes into account the functions of the different muscles and it relaxes,
    strengthens, or helps to tone the various muscle groups to achieve the best

     results possible. To be more
    precise, the following examples may help explain the concept. The

    frontalis muscle in the forehead contracts and shortens
    with age, causing wrinkles to form. The patented procedure in Myotonology®
    calls for the use of a current and frequency that stimulates the GTO, and
    allows the muscle to return to its original lengthened state, smoothing fine
    lines and wrinkles caused by shortening or contracting with age.


    Secondly, the orbicularis oculi tends to
    lengthen and cause hooding and drooping of the eyelids, sagging brows and
    wrinkles under the eyes. “Bags,” or “crêpe paper,” can also appear under the
    eyes as skin becomes more delicate and dehydrates with age. The Myotonology®
    procedure works with the GTO and the muscle to strengthen, shorten and tone,
    which “opens up” the eye by lifting the lids, raising the arch of the brow, and
    smoothing fines lines under the eyes. The Galvanic current helps hydrate the

    tissues around the eyes by infusion of
    ionized serums, helping diminish the “crêpe paper” look, while increased
    lymphatic drainage stimulated by the current reduces the puffiness or “bags.”
    The Zygomaticus major and minor muscles must also be tightened or “contracted,”
    because they lose tone, lengthen and cause the angle of the mouth to turn
    downward and form wrinkles. By placing the probes at the origin and insertion of
    the muscles this stimulates the GTO. The brain senses the stimulation, motor
    neurons get excited and the end effect of shortening the muscles reduces
    wrinkles by turning the angle of the mouth up slightly and “lifting” the cheek.
    The microcurrent provides a “re-education” of the muscles to return them all to
    the proper place and state of being.





    In terms of circulation, the same microcurrent used
    in Myotonology® has been proven to increase circulation in the treated area by
    over 30 percent. By increasing circulation, the user is able to provide the
    muscles with the nutrients they need to maintain tonus. The tissue is flooded
    with blood, which provides nutrition and removes waste products. The proper
    chemical balance is achieved and the tissue becomes healthier. Increased
    circulation and the resulting effects

     alter the function, color and
    overall health of the skin in a very positive way. vi vii



    Myotonology increases cellular metabolism, as well,
    to enhance healing and hydration and increase the latent tissue repair that is
    cumulative. The mechanism at the core of this process is an increase of
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the mitochondria, caused by a

     chemical reaction stimulated by
    the microcurrent at a cellular level. In the right current range, a

    threefold to fivefold increase was seen in clinical
    studies. ATP is referred to as the “energy of life,” and such a massive
    production and cumulative stockpiling over multiple treatments has profound
    effects on the skin and muscles of the skin. Increasing cellular metabolism in
    the area treated and directly stimulating the fibroblasts to produce collagen
    and elastin, leads to a

    plumping effect of the skin as well as
    improvement in skin elasticity and texture. Furthermore, muscles are provided
    with the energy and nutrients needed to maintain tonus in the desired “re-
    educated” location. vi vii


    The landmark study by N Cheng in 1982 found that
    microcurrent stimulation increased the production of ATP in the mitochondria of
    the cells by 300 to 500 percent, as well as increasing protein synthesis by 50
    percent and the uptake α-aminoisobutyric acid by 90 percent, which facilitates
    amino acid transport in and out of the cells. This also speeds up cellular
    metabolism exactly where the current is applied and gives the cells more energy
    to facilitate detoxification and production of collagen and proteins, including
    elastin. vi



    In regards to the Cheng study, it is important to
    note that with applied electrical currents exceeding 1,000µA, the ATP
    concentration leveled, and at 5,000µA they plummeted below the baseline.
    Protein synthesis also dropped 50 percent at these levels. This is significant
    because some hand-held units, and cheap “professional” units, on the market
    operate at these higher current levels. They will often cause visible
    contractions and provide an “instant tone,” but the cumulative effect will
    leave the skin and muscles of the face depleted of ATP, therefore not able to
    hold the desired tonus. By comparison, using Myotonology® at the proper current
    level “energizes” the skin, giving it a surplus of ATP. So, the muscles are
    gently re-educated into proper position, then given extra energy and
    circulation for the brain to maintain tonus. The

    cumulative effects of Myotonology®
    are profound and long lasting. Vi


     What else does the research show?



    Emil Y Chi, Ph.D., director of the
    University of Washington‘s Department of Pathology, who performed clinical
    studies using microcurrent equipment, notes, ”The fact that the technology
    works in harmony with the body is evident.”


    Examination of the skin tissue treated with
    microcurrent showed a 45 percent increase in the number of elastin fibers in
    the dermis, and the length if the fibers on average doubled. The collagen
    thickness in the connective tissues increased 10 percent, and the numbers of
    blood vessels increased by 35 percent. The application of microcurrent to skin
    and tissue produced a firmer and tighter feeling on the skin surface. Aside
    from muscle re-education and massive

    increases in ATP levels,
    microcurrent has other proven benefits for esthetic applications.


    Chi’s study also proved that the redness,
    irritation, and inflammation of surgically traumatized tissue could be
    decreased significantly when treated with microcurrent. vii   Furthermore, a study conducted in 1996 by
    A.G. Canseven, showed that applying microcurrent to wounds in rabbit skin in
    the range of 2ooµA to 400µA had an effect on collagen growth.



    “The hydroxyproline content was found to be increased
    in the wound tissue at the end of 72 hours of applying current which indicates
    collagen synthesis is promoted by electric current.” viii
    The pre- and post- surgical applications of microcurrent are promising with
    regards to the healing of tissue and remodeling of scars by stimulating
    collagen production. Furthermore, reduction in bruising post-cosmetic injection
    is possible because of increased circulation and lymphatic drainage. Case
    studies are currently being done for Myotonology® by a noted plastic surgeon in

    New York to
    determine the best protocols for remodeling scars, bruising and healing in
    relation  to



    Another important study relating to
    surgical wound healing using microcurrent was performed in

     2009 by Fernanda A. S. Mendonça.
    This study showed evidence that wounds treated with microcurrent alone, or
    microcurrent coupled with application of aloe vera gel, showed an earlier onset
    of the proliferative phase of healing in the rats. Mendonça notes, “Simultaneous
    application of aloe vera gel and microcurrent is an excellent choice for the
    treatment of open 

    wounds thus indicating a synergistic action of these two applications.” ix




    Myotonology® substantiates this study, because its
    proprietary conductance gel used during sessions to help deliver the current
    into the skin contains aloe vera. Aloe vera is a naturally occurring humectant,
    as well, so it helps with deep hydration of the skin. Of course, the
    Myotonology® conductance gel contains many other beneficial ingredients for the
    skin, so if a study showed increased healing in surgical wounds, the benefits
    for normal skin are no less than paramount.


    In a Chinese hospital clinical case study (Tuen Mun,
    1988) lymphatic drainage in post radiation cancer patients with lymphedema was
    shown to be increased by 28 percent. The post-surgical healing and positive
    benefits for the skin and muscles of the face are evident and easily recognized
    in this study, as well. Vii



    Finally, in 1991 Drs. Bert Sakmann and Erwin Neher,
    won the Nobel Prize for their work on the response of microcurrent on the
    physiology of human cellular membranes. Microcurrent’s electrical impulses,
    depending upon the frequencies used, would cause an opening in the “voltage sensitive
    cellular ion channels.” Their research showed that each cell contains between
    20 and 44 different ion channels, each being specific for a particular
    nutrient: calcium, magnesium, sodium, etc. Later it was shown that this
    pulsation of the cell’s membrane allowed for a process known as
    “electroporation,” whereby toxic material (including heavy metals) trapped
    inside the cell could be “electrically pulsated” out. Thus, microcurrent helps
    the body remove waste products in the cell by “pulsing” it out, and increasing
    circulation and lymphatic drainage in the surrounding tissue. X


    It follows that muscle re-education, increased
    circulation and cellular metabolism, coupled with a massive increase in
    cellular energy production, protein synthesis, waste removal and lymphatic
    drainage, will lead to latent tissue repair and, therefore, a firmer, tighter
    feeling of the skin on the face. Compared to the other anti-aging modalities
    available, Myotonology® is the safest, most non-evasive way to get a more
    youthful appearance.  Lasers, radio
    frequency and many other resurfacing techniques, actually wound the dermis to
    stimulate collagen production and are often very painful. Myotonology® achieves
    the desired effect “naturally” with no pain and no downtime. The broad scope of
    possible future use, coupled with time-tested, patented methods, verified
    results, and clinically researched technology, make Myotonology® the most
    obvious choice in the cosmetic market today.





















    Robertson, VAL 2006 Electrotherapy Explained:
    Principles And Practice  4
    th  edition, 2006: pp. 79-80



    ii       W atson,
    Tim; Iontophoresis; 2012;


    http://www.el oads/Modaliti es/Iontophoresis%20jan%202012.pdf



    iii      Adams and
    Victor's Principles of Neurology, Ropper A., Brown, R. 2005 pp (580-587)



    iv     “Applied
    kinesiology & Golgi tendon organ spindle cell” 18(3);Goodheart, George,
    Digest of
    Economics Nov/Dec 1975:18-19.



    v      W ing,
    Thomas W .  How a Chiropractic Modality
    Became a Medical Modality- The 20
    th Anniversary


    The Digest of Chiropractic Economics 1993; 35 (Jan/Feb):28-29



    vi     Cheng N,
    Van Hoof H, Bockx E, et al. (1982). "The effects of electric currents on
    ATP generation, protein synthesis, and membrane transport of rat skin".
    Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (171): 264–72. PMID 7140077.


    W hat is Cosm etic Microcurrent?;

    AG, 1996) “Is it possible to trigger collagen synthesis by electric current in
    skin wounds?” Biochemical

    Research Communication Journal,  1996



    ix  Mendonça,
    FA, et al 2009

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